The concept of informed consent has little direct use in children. Although minors have appropriate decision-making power, they generally do not have the legal authority to give informed consent. As a result, parents or other decision-makers who inquire about a child`s diagnosis and treatment may, if necessary, obtain informed authorization, with the consent of the child. Informed consent is mandatory for all human clinical studies. The consent process must respect the patient`s ability to make decisions and comply with individual hospital rules for clinical trials. Compliance with ethical standards in the design and conduct of studies is generally monitored by an Institutional Review Board (IRB). The IRB was created in the United States in 1974 by the National Research Act, which called for regulation of human research, triggered by dubious research tactics used in tuskegee-Syphillis and other experiments. Since then, ethical and safety standards for research have been an area of federal and presidential interest, with the development of numerous organizations and task forces dedicated to this theme alone since 1974. Knowingly valid consent for research must include three essential elements: (1) disclosure of information, (2) the competence of the patient (or replacement) to make a decision, and (3) the voluntary nature of the decision.
U.S. federal regulations require a full and detailed explanation of the study and its potential risks. Henri de Mondeville, a French surgeon who wrote about the doctor`s office in the 14th century. He attributed his ideas to the Hippocratic Oath. :63 One of his recommendations was that doctors „promise a cure to every patient“ in the hope that the right prognosis would lead to a good therapeutic outcome. 63 Mondeville never mentioned consent, but stressed the need for the patient to have confidence in the physician. 63 He also advised that the physician, in deciding on unserious therapeutic details, should respond to the patients` wishes „as long as they do not affect the treatment“.  Informed consent is a procedure for obtaining authorization before a health intervention is carried out on a person or to disclose personal information. A health care provider may ask a patient to consent before providing therapy, or a clinical researcher may ask a participant before enrolling that person in a clinical trial.
Informed consent is obtained in accordaability in the areas of medical ethics and research ethics. These practices are part of what informed consent is, and their history is the story of informed consent. :60 They combine with the modern concept of informed consent that has arisered in response to certain incidents in modern research. :60 While different cultures practiced informed consent in different places, the modern concept of informed consent was developed by people who influenced Western tradition. :60 Informed consent to medical treatment is fundamental in both ethics and law. Patients have the right to obtain information and ask questions about recommended treatments so that they can make thoughtful care decisions. Successful communication in the patient-physician relationship fosters trust and promotes joint decision-making. Children (usually under the age of 17) cannot consent. As such, parents must authorize treatment or intervention. In this case, it is not called „informed consent“ but „informed consent.“ An exception to this rule is a legally emancipated child who can consent knowingly.