The literacy test alone was not enough to prevent most potential immigrants from entering, so members of Congress sought in the 1920s a new way to limit immigration. Immigration expert and Vermont Republican Senator William P. Dillingham introduced a measure to create immigration quotas that he set at 3% of the total population of each foreign-born nationality in the United States, as shown by the 1910 census. The total number of visas available each year for new immigrants thus amounts to 350,000. However, no quota has been set for the inhabitants of the Western Hemisphere. President Wilson rejected the restrictive law and preferred a more liberal immigration policy, so he used the pocket veto to prevent its passage. In early 1921, new President Warren Harding reconvened Congress in a special session to pass the law. In 1922, the act was extended for a further two years. The American Christian George F. Pentecost opposed Western imperialism in China and said: Personally, I am convinced that lifting the embargo on Chinese immigration would be a good thing for America. I think the addition of 100,000 a year in this country would be a good thing for the country. And if the same were done in the Philippines, these islands would be a real Garden of Eden in twenty-five years. I think the presence of Chinese workers in this country would bite a lot to solve our labor problems.
There is no comparison between the Chinaman, even of the lowest coolie class, and the man who comes from Southeast Europe, Russia or southern Italy. The Chinese are good workers. That`s why the workers hate it. I also think that emigration to America would help the Chinese. At least he would come into contact with real Christians in America. The Chinaman lives in misery because he is poor. If he had any prosperity, his misery would cease.  Amendments made in 1884 strengthened the provisions allowing former immigrants to leave and return, and it was clarified that the law applied to ethnic Chinese, regardless of their country of origin. The Scott Act (1888) expanded the Chinese Exclusion Act and prohibited return to the United States after departure.
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